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Library Essentials

Key Points for Citing and Referencing

Citing is quoting the source of other peoples' work, ideas and concepts in a piece of academic coursework. You include a citation at places in your work where you quote from different authors. Referencing refers to the act of referencing different sources and you often include a list of references at the end of your work so these are acknowledged and can be followed up by your lecturer or supervisor. Accurate citing and referencing will help you obtain better marks for your assignments.

  • Always cite and acknowledge other people's work and ideas.
  • Follow the guidance in the course/ module handbook.
  • Check for more advice and tips about citing and referencing on Cite Them Right Online. which has useful examples for referencing eg. Kindle books, government publications, journals.
  • Be clear and consistent.
  • Allow plenty of time to complete your work.
  • Check any output generated by a citation tool such as RefWorks for accuracy.
  • For Harvard referencing, try our Harvard Citing and referencing quiz.

Cite Them Right Online is a comprehensive guide to referencing almost anything you will come across in the course of your studies or research. It includes guides for a number of different referencing styles. It will help you to reference books, journals, articles, web sites and other material, and understand how to avoid plagiarism. You can also find answers to common questions about referencing, as well as helpful guidance to keep you on the right track.

There are also print copies available in our Libraries at shelf number 808.027 PEA 

Here is a short video introducing Cite Them Right Online:

Here are the Cite Them Right Harvard citing and referencing workshop slides:

Avoiding Plagiarism

Plagiarism is using the words, work or ideas of others and passing them off as your own. Plagiarism is not only something that is taken seriously at University, but also in the world of work.

You will find information about plagiarism  and how to avoid it at University in  Cite Them Right Online

When undertaking a large piece of work such as a dissertation or thesis, you need to keep very clear records of your research and you may find it helpful to use a reference management tool such as RefWorks to manage your references, cite them in texts and create bibliographies.

RefWorks can assist with citing in the text and in bibliographies but please check your references for accuracy very carefully.

Citing and Referencing for Law (OSCOLA)

Please see the Citing and Referencing guide for Law covering citing and referencing using OSCOLA, with an online tutorial, hints and tips, and links for further help.

Harvard Referencing

Harvard referencing is very commonly used at City and also known as the author-date system, there are 2 parts to Harvard referencing and an example is given below.

  1. Citing in your assignment or dissertation (author-date):

    Research methods can be categorised into two broad approaches, induction and deduction (Partington, 2002).

    There are different ways you can use the author’s surname and date in your writing, as long as both are there and near each other. This makes your work easier to read and the use of language more natural.

    For example: According to McTaggart (2010) …

    Include page numbers when you refer to a specific point in the text, such as a direct quote.
    "Digital research is important" (Paterson, 2015, p. 17).

  2. Your alphabetical reference list  at the end of your work of items you have cited in your work:

    Paterson, F. (ed.) (2015) Essential skills for citing and referencing. London: Sage.

Harvard citing and referencing quiz

Test your knowledge in our Harvard citing and referencing quiz. Use Cite Them Right Online to help you to answer the questions.

Accessibility: You can complete the quiz in full screen if you wish.

This quiz is also keyboard accessible. To use a keyboard, use the following keys: 

  • the tab key (or shift + tab to go backwards) to move between answers in ‘tick all that apply’ questions and the navigation buttons.
  • the up and down arrow keys to move between answers in multiple choice questions
  • return key or space bar to select answers
  • return key or space bar key to check answers, retry and follow navigation to move between questions.