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Citing and referencing

What is citing and referencing?

Citing and referencing is how you acknowledge the sources (e.g. books, journal articles, websites) that you have used in your academic work. In-text citations show which source you are referring to. At the end of your work, a reference list gives the full details of the sources

Why cite and reference?

When you produce a piece of academic work, it is important to acknowledge other sources that you have used. Citing and referencing is the way that you acknowledge other people's ideas and work in your own essays, assignments and dissertations.

Remember that if you do not cite and reference your sources, or if you cite and reference them incorrectly, you could face penalties for academic misconduct and plagiarism. 

Key points for citing and referencing

  • Always cite and acknowledge other people's work and ideas.
  • Follow the guidance in the course/ module handbook.
  • Be clear and consistent.

Cite Them Right

Cite Them Right provides comprehensive guidelines and examples of how to reference all kinds of sources including books, articles, websites and many other materials.

There are print copies available in our libraries at the shelf number 808.027 PEA.


RefWorks is an online reference management tool that can be used by City students, staff and alumni.

Use RefWorks to:

  • Manage your references for projects and dissertations and store them in folders.
  • Export references from CityLibrary Search, most academic databases and Google Scholar into RefWorks.
  • Create bibliographies in different referencing styles and generate in-text citations.
  • Upload PDFs and documents directly from your computer.
  • Collaborate and share references with others.