It is City policy that completed theses are generally made publicly available in City Research Online. Because of this, there are some important things to remember when doing your research and writing up your thesis.
The two documents below will help with this, which you can print or save elsewhere.
For material published more recently: according to City's and many research funders' policies, it is now generally the case that articles and other research outputs should be published in Open Access unless there is a good reason not to; this means that in many cases the publishers won't own the copyright and the content will be openly licensed for free re-use without permission. This means that both your own and others' work will increasingly be free to re-use (though you should always double-check this before re-using anything).
It is now normal practice to include completed PhD theses on our institutional repository, City Research Online, and they will also become available on the British Library service EThOS. This benefits you and society as it makes your research available to a worldwide audience. (They can be withheld temporarily or permanently if there is a good reason to, subject to approval.)
However, it is important to be aware of copyright considerations from an early stage in your research, as you go about selecting material for inclusion in your thesis, otherwise this may be problematic. It is permissible to use a certain amount of copyrighted material in your thesis for criticism and review (see below), and for illustration. However, it is important that an excessive amount is not used from any one work, as well as material that is not strictly necessary.
Using material from museums and archives that is still under copyright:
Using images of objects in museums and archives that are out of copyright:
If you are still unsure, contact the Copyright Librarian for advice.
You will need to contact the rights holder which may be an author, illustrator, photographer, translator, composer, or other creator. For material from books and journals, the copyright holder will usually be the publishers and their website should list a contact address or mailbox, sometimes with information on seeking permission. Look for a section entitled "rights", "copyright clearance" or "permissions".
You will also need to ask permission of any archive where you reproduce material held by them, adjusting the sample text below accordingly.
Ask for permission in writing, by letter or e-mail. Here is some sample text which you may use:
Keep a record of any letters or e-mails you receive granting you permission and indicate that permission has been granted at the appropriate place in your thesis, for example: "This [item] has been reproduced with the permission of…". The template linked to at the bottom of this box may be of use in keeping records.
If you do need to include certain copyrighted material in your thesis but do not receive permission to do so, you may need to omit it from the open access version on City Research Online. Remember that it is not an infringement to include third-party copyright material (within reason) in the version of your thesis which gets passed to your examiners. Doing this will have no bearing on the outcome of your examination.
Bear in mind that if your permission request receives no reply, this does not mean that you are permitted to use the material.